The Tomcat Servlet/JSP Container

Apache Tomcat 4

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The HTTP/1.1 Connector


IMPORTANT NOTE: The HTTP/1.1 connector is now deprecated. Use the Coyote HTTP/1.1 Connector instead.

IMPORTANT NOTE: This connector MUST NOT be used in conjunction with any Context element that has the allowLinking attribute set to true. In this configuration it is possible for a mal-formed request to result in source code exposure of JSPs.

The HTTP/1.1 Connector element represents a Connector component that supports the HTTP/1.1 protocol. It enables Catalina to function as a stand-alone web server, in addition to its ability to execute servlets and JSP pages. A particular instance of this component listens for connections on a specific TCP port number on the server. One or more such Connectors can be configured as part of a single Service, each forwarding to the associated Engine to perform request processing and create the response.

If you wish to configure the Connector that is used for connections to web servers using the WARP protocol (such as the mod_webapp connector for Apache 1.3), see here instead.

At server startup time, this Connector will create a number of request processing threads (based on the value configured for the minProcessors attribute). Each incoming request requires a thread for the duration of that request. If more simultaneous requests are received than can be handled by the currently available request processing threads, additional threads will be created up to the configured maximum (the value of the maxProcessors attribute). If still more simultaneous requests are received, they are stacked up inside the server socket created by the Connector, up to the configured maximum (the value of the acceptCount attribute. Any further simultaneous requests will receive "connection refused" errors, until resources are available to process them.

Common Attributes

All implementations of Connector support the following attributes:


Java class name of the implementation to use. This class must implement the org.apache.catalina.Connector interface. You must specify the standard value defined below.


Set to true if you want calls to request.getRemoteHost() to perform DNS lookups in order to return the actual host name of the remote client. Set to false to skip the DNS lookup and return the IP address in String form instead (thereby improving performance). By default, DNS lookups are disabled.


If this Connector is supporting non-SSL requests, and a request is received for which a matching <security-constraint> requires SSL transport, Catalina will automatically redirect the request to the port number specified here.


Set this attribute to the name of the protocol you wish to have returned by calls to request.getScheme(). For example, you would set this attribute to "https" for an SSL Connector. The default value is "http". See SSL Support for more information.


Set this attribute to true if you wish to have calls to request.isSecure() to return true for requests received by this Connector (you would want this on an SSL Connector). The default value is false.

Standard Implementation

The standard implementation of HTTP/1.1 Connector is org.apache.catalina.connector.http.HttpConnector. It supports the following additional attributes (in addition to the common attributes listed above):


The maximum queue length for incoming connection requests when all possible request processing threads are in use. Any requests received when the queue is full will be refused. The default value is 10.


If set to true, chunked output is allowed when processing HTTP/1.1 requests. This is set to true by default.


For servers with more than one IP address, this attribute specifies which address will be used for listening on the specified port. By default, this port will be used on all IP addresses associated with the server.


The size (in bytes) of the buffer to be provided for input streams created by this connector. By default, buffers of 2048 bytes will be provided.


The number of milliseconds this Connector will wait, after accepting a connection, for the request URI line to be presented. The default value is 60000 (i.e. 60 seconds).


The debugging detail level of log messages generated by this component, with higher numbers creating more detailed output. If not specified, this attribute is set to zero (0).


The maximum number of request processing threads to be created by this Connector, which therefore determines the maximum number of simultaneous requests that can be handled. If not specified, this attribute is set to 20.


The number of request processing threads that will be created when this Connector is first started. This attribute should be set to a value smaller than that set for maxProcessors. The default value is 5.


The TCP port number on which this Connector will create a server socket and await incoming connections. Your operating system will allow only one server application to listen to a particular port number on a particular IP address.


If this Connector is being used in a proxy configuration, configure this attribute to specify the server name to be returned for calls to request.getServerName(). See Proxy Support for more information.


If this Connector is being used in a proxy configuration, configure this attribute to specify the server port to be returned for calls to request.getServerPort(). See Proxy Support for more information.


If set to true, the TCP_NO_DELAY option will be set on the server socket, which improves performance under most circumstances. This is set to true by default.

Nested Components

The only element that may be embedded inside a Connector element is a Factory element, which is used to configure a server socket factory component. See SSL Support for more information about when this is required.

Special Features
HTTP/1.1 and HTTP/1.0 Support

This Connector supports all of the required features of the HTTP/1.1 protocol, as described in RFC 2616, including persistent connections and chunked encoding. If the client (typically a browser) supports only HTTP/1.0, the Connector will gracefully fall back to supporting this protocol as well. No special configuration is required to enable this support.

RFC 2616 requires that HTTP servers always begin their responses with the highest HTTP version that they claim to support. Therefore, this Connector will always return HTTP/1.1 at the beginning of its responses.

Logging Output

Any debugging or exception logging information generated by this Connector will be automatically routed to the Logger that is associated with our related Engine. No special configuration is required to enable this support.

Proxy Support

The proxyName and proxyPort attributes can be used when Tomcat is run behind a proxy server. These attributes modify the values returned to web applications that call the request.getServerName() and request.getServerPort() methods, which are often used to construct absolute URLs for redirects. Without configuring these attributes, the values returned would reflect the server name and port on which the connection from the proxy server was received, rather than the server name and port to whom the client directed the original request.

For more information, see the Proxy Support HOW-TO.

SSL Support

You can enable SSL support for a particular instance of this Connector by nesting an appropriate <Factory> element inside, to set up the required SSL socket factory. This element supports the following attributes:


The certificate encoding algorithm to be used. If not specified, the default value is SunX509.


The comma separated list of encryption ciphers that this socket is allowed to use. By default, the default ciphers for the JVM will be used. Note that this usually means that the weak export grade ciphers will be included in the list of available ciphers. The ciphers are specified using the JSSE cipher naming convention.


The fully qualified class name of the SSL server socket factory implementation class. You must specify here.


Set to true if you want the SSL stack to require a valid certificate chain from the client before accepting a connection. A false value (which is the default) will not require a certificate chain unless the client requests a resource protected by a security constraint that uses CLIENT-CERT authentication.


The pathname of the keystore file where you have stored the server certificate to be loaded. By default, the pathname is the file ".keystore" in the operating system home directory of the user that is running Tomcat.


The password used to access the server certificate from the specified keystore file. The default value is "changeit".


The type of keystore file to be used for the server certificate. If not specified, the default value is "JKS".


The version of the SSL protocol to use. If not specified, the default is "TLS".

For more information, see the SSL Configuration HOW-TO.

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