Class GenericKeyedObjectPool<K,​T>

  • Type Parameters:
    K - The type of keys maintained by this pool.
    T - Type of element pooled in this pool.
    All Implemented Interfaces:
    Closeable, AutoCloseable, GenericKeyedObjectPoolMXBean<K>, KeyedObjectPool<K,​T>, UsageTracking<T>

    public class GenericKeyedObjectPool<K,​T>
    extends BaseGenericObjectPool<T>
    implements KeyedObjectPool<K,​T>, GenericKeyedObjectPoolMXBean<K>, UsageTracking<T>
    A configurable KeyedObjectPool implementation.

    When coupled with the appropriate KeyedPooledObjectFactory, GenericKeyedObjectPool provides robust pooling functionality for keyed objects. A GenericKeyedObjectPool can be viewed as a map of sub-pools, keyed on the (unique) key values provided to the preparePool, addObject or borrowObject methods. Each time a new key value is provided to one of these methods, a sub-new pool is created under the given key to be managed by the containing GenericKeyedObjectPool.

    Note that the current implementation uses a ConcurrentHashMap which uses equals() to compare keys. This means that distinct instance keys must be distinguishable using equals.

    Optionally, one may configure the pool to examine and possibly evict objects as they sit idle in the pool and to ensure that a minimum number of idle objects is maintained for each key. This is performed by an "idle object eviction" thread, which runs asynchronously. Caution should be used when configuring this optional feature. Eviction runs contend with client threads for access to objects in the pool, so if they run too frequently performance issues may result.

    Implementation note: To prevent possible deadlocks, care has been taken to ensure that no call to a factory method will occur within a synchronization block. See POOL-125 and DBCP-44 for more information.

    This class is intended to be thread-safe.

    Since:
    2.0
    See Also:
    GenericObjectPool
    • Constructor Detail

      • GenericKeyedObjectPool

        public GenericKeyedObjectPool​(KeyedPooledObjectFactory<K,​T> factory,
                                      GenericKeyedObjectPoolConfig<T> config)
        Constructs a new GenericKeyedObjectPool using a specific configuration.
        Parameters:
        factory - the factory to be used to create entries
        config - The configuration to use for this pool instance. The configuration is used by value. Subsequent changes to the configuration object will not be reflected in the pool.
      • GenericKeyedObjectPool

        public GenericKeyedObjectPool​(KeyedPooledObjectFactory<K,​T> factory,
                                      GenericKeyedObjectPoolConfig<T> config,
                                      AbandonedConfig abandonedConfig)
        Creates a new GenericKeyedObjectPool that tracks and destroys objects that are checked out, but never returned to the pool.
        Parameters:
        factory - The object factory to be used to create object instances used by this pool
        config - The base pool configuration to use for this pool instance. The configuration is used by value. Subsequent changes to the configuration object will not be reflected in the pool.
        abandonedConfig - Configuration for abandoned object identification and removal. The configuration is used by value.
        Since:
        2.10.0
    • Method Detail

      • borrowObject

        public T borrowObject​(K key)
                       throws Exception
        Equivalent to borrowObject(key, BaseGenericObjectPool.getMaxWaitDuration()). Borrows an instance from this pool for the specified key.

        Instances returned from this method will have been either newly created with makeObject or will be a previously idle object and have been activated with activateObject and then (optionally) validated with validateObject.

        By contract, clients must return the borrowed object using returnObject, invalidateObject, or a related method as defined in an implementation or sub-interface, using a key that is equivalent to the one used to borrow the instance in the first place.

        The behavior of this method when the pool has been exhausted is not strictly specified (although it may be specified by implementations).

        Specified by:
        borrowObject in interface KeyedObjectPool<K,​T>
        Parameters:
        key - the key used to obtain the object
        Returns:
        an instance from this pool.
        Throws:
        IllegalStateException - after close has been called on this pool
        Exception - when makeObject throws an exception
        NoSuchElementException - when the pool is exhausted and cannot or will not return another instance
      • borrowObject

        public T borrowObject​(K key,
                              long borrowMaxWaitMillis)
                       throws Exception
        Borrows an object from the sub-pool associated with the given key using the specified waiting time which only applies if BaseGenericObjectPool.getBlockWhenExhausted() is true.

        If there is one or more idle instances available in the sub-pool associated with the given key, then an idle instance will be selected based on the value of BaseGenericObjectPool.getLifo(), activated and returned. If activation fails, or testOnBorrow is set to true and validation fails, the instance is destroyed and the next available instance is examined. This continues until either a valid instance is returned or there are no more idle instances available.

        If there are no idle instances available in the sub-pool associated with the given key, behavior depends on the maxTotalPerKey, maxTotal, and (if applicable) BaseGenericObjectPool.getBlockWhenExhausted() and the value passed in to the borrowMaxWaitMillis parameter. If the number of instances checked out from the sub-pool under the given key is less than maxTotalPerKey and the total number of instances in circulation (under all keys) is less than maxTotal, a new instance is created, activated and (if applicable) validated and returned to the caller. If validation fails, a NoSuchElementException will be thrown.

        If the associated sub-pool is exhausted (no available idle instances and no capacity to create new ones), this method will either block (BaseGenericObjectPool.getBlockWhenExhausted() is true) or throw a NoSuchElementException (BaseGenericObjectPool.getBlockWhenExhausted() is false). The length of time that this method will block when BaseGenericObjectPool.getBlockWhenExhausted() is true is determined by the value passed in to the borrowMaxWait parameter.

        When maxTotal is set to a positive value and this method is invoked when at the limit with no idle instances available under the requested key, an attempt is made to create room by clearing the oldest 15% of the elements from the keyed sub-pools.

        When the pool is exhausted, multiple calling threads may be simultaneously blocked waiting for instances to become available. A "fairness" algorithm has been implemented to ensure that threads receive available instances in request arrival order.

        Parameters:
        key - pool key
        borrowMaxWaitMillis - The time to wait in milliseconds for an object to become available
        Returns:
        object instance from the keyed pool
        Throws:
        NoSuchElementException - if a keyed object instance cannot be returned because the pool is exhausted.
        Exception - if a keyed object instance cannot be returned due to an error
      • clear

        public void clear()
        Clears any objects sitting idle in the pool by removing them from the idle instance sub-pools and then invoking the configured PoolableObjectFactory's KeyedPooledObjectFactory.destroyObject(Object, PooledObject) method on each idle instance.

        Implementation notes:

        • This method does not destroy or effect in any way instances that are checked out when it is invoked.
        • Invoking this method does not prevent objects being returned to the idle instance pool, even during its execution. Additional instances may be returned while removed items are being destroyed.
        • Exceptions encountered destroying idle instances are swallowed but notified via a SwallowedExceptionListener.
        Specified by:
        clear in interface KeyedObjectPool<K,​T>
      • clear

        public void clear​(K key)
        Clears the specified sub-pool, removing all pooled instances corresponding to the given key. Exceptions encountered destroying idle instances are swallowed but notified via a SwallowedExceptionListener.
        Specified by:
        clear in interface KeyedObjectPool<K,​T>
        Parameters:
        key - the key to clear
      • clearOldest

        public void clearOldest()
        Clears oldest 15% of objects in pool. The method sorts the objects into a TreeMap and then iterates the first 15% for removal.
      • evict

        public void evict()
                   throws Exception
        Perform numTests idle object eviction tests, evicting examined objects that meet the criteria for eviction. If testWhileIdle is true, examined objects are validated when visited (and removed if invalid); otherwise only objects that have been idle for more than minEvicableIdleTimeMillis are removed.

        Successive activations of this method examine objects in keyed sub-pools in sequence, cycling through the keys and examining objects in oldest-to-youngest order within the keyed sub-pools.

        Specified by:
        evict in class BaseGenericObjectPool<T>
        Throws:
        Exception - when there is a problem evicting idle objects.
      • getFactory

        public KeyedPooledObjectFactory<K,​T> getFactory()
        Gets a reference to the factory used to create, destroy and validate the objects used by this pool.
        Returns:
        the factory
      • getMaxIdlePerKey

        public int getMaxIdlePerKey()
        Gets the cap on the number of "idle" instances per key in the pool. If maxIdlePerKey is set too low on heavily loaded systems it is possible you will see objects being destroyed and almost immediately new objects being created. This is a result of the active threads momentarily returning objects faster than they are requesting them, causing the number of idle objects to rise above maxIdlePerKey. The best value for maxIdlePerKey for heavily loaded system will vary but the default is a good starting point.
        Specified by:
        getMaxIdlePerKey in interface GenericKeyedObjectPoolMXBean<K>
        Returns:
        the maximum number of "idle" instances that can be held in a given keyed sub-pool or a negative value if there is no limit
        See Also:
        setMaxIdlePerKey(int)
      • getMaxTotalPerKey

        public int getMaxTotalPerKey()
        Gets the limit on the number of object instances allocated by the pool (checked out or idle), per key. When the limit is reached, the sub-pool is said to be exhausted. A negative value indicates no limit.
        Specified by:
        getMaxTotalPerKey in interface GenericKeyedObjectPoolMXBean<K>
        Returns:
        the limit on the number of active instances per key
        See Also:
        setMaxTotalPerKey(int)
      • getNumActive

        public int getNumActive()
        Description copied from interface: KeyedObjectPool
        Gets the total number of instances currently borrowed from this pool but not yet returned. Returns a negative value if this information is not available.
        Specified by:
        getNumActive in interface GenericKeyedObjectPoolMXBean<K>
        Specified by:
        getNumActive in interface KeyedObjectPool<K,​T>
        Returns:
        the total number of instances currently borrowed from this pool but not yet returned.
      • getNumActive

        public int getNumActive​(K key)
        Description copied from interface: KeyedObjectPool
        Gets the number of instances currently borrowed from but not yet returned to the pool corresponding to the given key. Returns a negative value if this information is not available.
        Specified by:
        getNumActive in interface KeyedObjectPool<K,​T>
        Parameters:
        key - the key to query
        Returns:
        the number of instances currently borrowed from but not yet returned to the pool corresponding to the given key.
      • getNumIdle

        public int getNumIdle​(K key)
        Description copied from interface: KeyedObjectPool
        Gets the number of instances corresponding to the given key currently idle in this pool. Returns a negative value if this information is not available.
        Specified by:
        getNumIdle in interface KeyedObjectPool<K,​T>
        Parameters:
        key - the key to query
        Returns:
        the number of instances corresponding to the given key currently idle in this pool.
      • getNumWaiters

        public int getNumWaiters()
        Return an estimate of the number of threads currently blocked waiting for an object from the pool. This is intended for monitoring only, not for synchronization control.
        Specified by:
        getNumWaiters in interface GenericKeyedObjectPoolMXBean<K>
        Returns:
        The estimate of the number of threads currently blocked waiting for an object from the pool
      • getNumWaitersByKey

        public Map<String,​Integer> getNumWaitersByKey()
        Return an estimate of the number of threads currently blocked waiting for an object from the pool for each key. This is intended for monitoring only, not for synchronization control.
        Specified by:
        getNumWaitersByKey in interface GenericKeyedObjectPoolMXBean<K>
        Returns:
        The estimate of the number of threads currently blocked waiting for an object from the pool for each key
      • invalidateObject

        public void invalidateObject​(K key,
                                     T obj)
                              throws Exception
        Invalidates an object from the pool.

        By contract, obj must have been obtained using borrowObject or a related method as defined in an implementation or sub-interface using a key that is equivalent to the one used to borrow the Object in the first place.

        This method should be used when an object that has been borrowed is determined (due to an exception or other problem) to be invalid.

        Activation of this method decrements the active count associated with the given keyed pool and attempts to destroy obj.

        Specified by:
        invalidateObject in interface KeyedObjectPool<K,​T>
        Parameters:
        key - pool key
        obj - instance to invalidate
        Throws:
        Exception - if an exception occurs destroying the object
        IllegalStateException - if obj does not belong to the pool under the given key
      • invalidateObject

        public void invalidateObject​(K key,
                                     T obj,
                                     DestroyMode destroyMode)
                              throws Exception
        Invalidates an object from the pool, using the provided DestroyMode.

        By contract, obj must have been obtained using borrowObject or a related method as defined in an implementation or sub-interface using a key that is equivalent to the one used to borrow the Object in the first place.

        This method should be used when an object that has been borrowed is determined (due to an exception or other problem) to be invalid.

        Activation of this method decrements the active count associated with the given keyed pool and attempts to destroy obj.

        Specified by:
        invalidateObject in interface KeyedObjectPool<K,​T>
        Parameters:
        key - pool key
        obj - instance to invalidate
        destroyMode - DestroyMode context provided to factory
        Throws:
        Exception - if an exception occurs destroying the object
        IllegalStateException - if obj does not belong to the pool under the given key
        Since:
        2.9.0
      • listAllObjects

        public Map<String,​List<DefaultPooledObjectInfo>> listAllObjects()
        Provides information on all the objects in the pool, both idle (waiting to be borrowed) and active (currently borrowed).

        Note: This is named listAllObjects so it is presented as an operation via JMX. That means it won't be invoked unless the explicitly requested whereas all attributes will be automatically requested when viewing the attributes for an object in a tool like JConsole.

        Specified by:
        listAllObjects in interface GenericKeyedObjectPoolMXBean<K>
        Returns:
        Information grouped by key on all the objects in the pool
      • preparePool

        public void preparePool​(K key)
                         throws Exception
        Registers a key for pool control and ensures that getMinIdlePerKey() idle instances are created.
        Parameters:
        key - - The key to register for pool control.
        Throws:
        Exception - If the associated factory throws an exception
      • returnObject

        public void returnObject​(K key,
                                 T obj)
        Returns an object to a keyed sub-pool.

        If maxIdle is set to a positive value and the number of idle instances under the given key has reached this value, the returning instance is destroyed.

        If testOnReturn == true, the returning instance is validated before being returned to the idle instance sub-pool under the given key. In this case, if validation fails, the instance is destroyed.

        Exceptions encountered destroying objects for any reason are swallowed but notified via a SwallowedExceptionListener.

        Specified by:
        returnObject in interface KeyedObjectPool<K,​T>
        Parameters:
        key - pool key
        obj - instance to return to the keyed pool
        Throws:
        IllegalStateException - if an object is returned to the pool that was not borrowed from it or if an object is returned to the pool multiple times
      • setMaxIdlePerKey

        public void setMaxIdlePerKey​(int maxIdlePerKey)
        Sets the cap on the number of "idle" instances per key in the pool. If maxIdlePerKey is set too low on heavily loaded systems it is possible you will see objects being destroyed and almost immediately new objects being created. This is a result of the active threads momentarily returning objects faster than they are requesting them, causing the number of idle objects to rise above maxIdlePerKey. The best value for maxIdlePerKey for heavily loaded system will vary but the default is a good starting point.
        Parameters:
        maxIdlePerKey - the maximum number of "idle" instances that can be held in a given keyed sub-pool. Use a negative value for no limit
        See Also:
        getMaxIdlePerKey()
      • setMaxTotalPerKey

        public void setMaxTotalPerKey​(int maxTotalPerKey)
        Sets the limit on the number of object instances allocated by the pool (checked out or idle), per key. When the limit is reached, the sub-pool is said to be exhausted. A negative value indicates no limit.
        Parameters:
        maxTotalPerKey - the limit on the number of active instances per key
        See Also:
        getMaxTotalPerKey()
      • setMinIdlePerKey

        public void setMinIdlePerKey​(int minIdlePerKey)
        Sets the target for the minimum number of idle objects to maintain in each of the keyed sub-pools. This setting only has an effect if it is positive and BaseGenericObjectPool.getDurationBetweenEvictionRuns() is greater than zero. If this is the case, an attempt is made to ensure that each sub-pool has the required minimum number of instances during idle object eviction runs.

        If the configured value of minIdlePerKey is greater than the configured value for maxIdlePerKey then the value of maxIdlePerKey will be used instead.

        Parameters:
        minIdlePerKey - The minimum size of the each keyed pool
        See Also:
        getMinIdlePerKey(), getMaxIdlePerKey(), BaseGenericObjectPool.setTimeBetweenEvictionRuns(Duration)
      • use

        public void use​(T pooledObject)
        Description copied from interface: UsageTracking
        Called every time a pooled object is used to enable the pool to better track borrowed objects.
        Specified by:
        use in interface UsageTracking<K>
        Parameters:
        pooledObject - The object that is being used.
        Since:
        2.10.0