Class Tomcat


  • public class Tomcat
    extends java.lang.Object
    Minimal tomcat starter for embedding/unit tests.

    Tomcat supports multiple styles of configuration and startup - the most common and stable is server.xml-based, implemented in org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap.

    This class is for use in apps that embed tomcat.

    Requirements:

    • all tomcat classes and possibly servlets are in the classpath. (for example all is in one big jar, or in eclipse CP, or in any other combination)
    • we need one temporary directory for work files
    • no config file is required. This class provides methods to use if you have a webapp with a web.xml file, but it is optional - you can use your own servlets.

    There are a variety of 'add' methods to configure servlets and webapps. These methods, by default, create a simple in-memory security realm and apply it. If you need more complex security processing, you can define a subclass of this class.

    This class provides a set of convenience methods for configuring web application contexts; all overloads of the method addWebapp(). These methods are equivalent to adding a web application to the Host's appBase (normally the webapps directory). These methods create a Context, configure it with the equivalent of the defaults provided by conf/web.xml (see initWebappDefaults(String) for details) and add the Context to a Host. These methods do not use a global default web.xml; rather, they add a LifecycleListener to configure the defaults. Any WEB-INF/web.xml and META-INF/context.xml packaged with the application will be processed normally. Normal web fragment and ServletContainerInitializer processing will be applied.

    In complex cases, you may prefer to use the ordinary Tomcat API to create webapp contexts; for example, you might need to install a custom Loader before the call to Container.addChild(Container). To replicate the basic behavior of the addWebapp methods, you may want to call two methods of this class: noDefaultWebXmlPath() and getDefaultWebXmlListener().

    getDefaultWebXmlListener() returns a LifecycleListener that adds the standard DefaultServlet, JSP processing, and welcome files. If you add this listener, you must prevent Tomcat from applying any standard global web.xml with ...

    noDefaultWebXmlPath() returns a dummy pathname to configure to prevent ContextConfig from trying to apply a global web.xml file.

    This class provides a main() and few simple CLI arguments, see setters for doc. It can be used for simple tests and demo.

    Author:
    Costin Manolache
    See Also:
    TestTomcat
    • Field Summary

      Fields 
      Modifier and Type Field Description
      protected java.lang.String basedir  
      protected java.lang.String hostname  
      protected int port  
      protected Server server  
    • Constructor Summary

      Constructors 
      Constructor Description
      Tomcat()  
    • Method Summary

      All Methods Static Methods Instance Methods Concrete Methods 
      Modifier and Type Method Description
      Context addContext​(java.lang.String contextPath, java.lang.String docBase)
      Add a context - programmatic mode, no default web.xml used.
      Context addContext​(Host host, java.lang.String contextPath, java.lang.String dir)  
      Context addContext​(Host host, java.lang.String contextPath, java.lang.String contextName, java.lang.String dir)  
      static void addDefaultMimeTypeMappings​(Context context)
      Add the default MIME type mappings to the provide Context.
      void addRole​(java.lang.String user, java.lang.String role)
      Add a role to a user.
      Wrapper addServlet​(java.lang.String contextPath, java.lang.String servletName, java.lang.String servletClass)
      Equivalent to <servlet><servlet-name><servlet-class>.
      Wrapper addServlet​(java.lang.String contextPath, java.lang.String servletName, Servlet servlet)
      Add an existing Servlet to the context with no class.forName or initialisation.
      static Wrapper addServlet​(Context ctx, java.lang.String servletName, java.lang.String servletClass)
      static Wrapper addServlet​(Context ctx, java.lang.String servletName, Servlet servlet)
      void addUser​(java.lang.String user, java.lang.String pass)
      Add a user for the in-memory realm.
      Context addWebapp​(java.lang.String contextPath, java.lang.String docBase)
      This is equivalent to adding a web application to a Host's appBase (usually Tomcat's webapps directory).
      Context addWebapp​(java.lang.String contextPath, java.net.URL source)
      Copy the specified WAR file to the Host's appBase and then call addWebapp(String, String) with the newly copied WAR.
      Context addWebapp​(Host host, java.lang.String contextPath, java.lang.String docBase)
      This is equivalent to adding a web application to a Host's appBase (usually Tomcat's webapps directory).
      Context addWebapp​(Host host, java.lang.String contextPath, java.lang.String docBase, LifecycleListener config)
      This is equivalent to adding a web application to a Host's appBase (usually Tomcat's webapps directory).
      protected Realm createDefaultRealm()
      Create an in-memory realm.
      void destroy()
      Destroy the server.
      void enableNaming()
      Enables JNDI naming which is disabled by default.
      Connector getConnector()
      Get the default HTTP connector that is used by the embedded Tomcat.
      LifecycleListener getDefaultWebXmlListener()
      Return a listener that provides the required configuration items for JSP processing.
      Engine getEngine()
      Access to the engine, for further customization.
      Host getHost()  
      Server getServer()
      Get the server object.
      Service getService()
      Get the service object.
      protected java.net.URL getWebappConfigFile​(java.lang.String path, java.lang.String contextName)  
      void init()
      Initialize the server.
      void init​(ConfigurationSource source)
      Initialize the server given the specified configuration source.
      void init​(ConfigurationSource source, java.lang.String[] catalinaArguments)
      Initialize the server given the specified configuration source.
      protected void initBaseDir()  
      void initWebappDefaults​(java.lang.String contextPath)
      Provide default configuration for a context.
      static void initWebappDefaults​(Context ctx)
      Static version of initWebappDefaults(String).
      static void main​(java.lang.String[] args)
      Main executable method for use with a Maven packager.
      java.lang.String noDefaultWebXmlPath()  
      void setAddDefaultWebXmlToWebapp​(boolean addDefaultWebXmlToWebapp)
      By default, when calling addWebapp() to create a Context, the settings from from the default web.xml are added to the context.
      void setBaseDir​(java.lang.String basedir)
      Tomcat requires that the base directory is set because the defaults for a number of other locations, such as the work directory, are derived from the base directory.
      void setConnector​(Connector connector)
      Set the specified connector in the service, if it is not already present.
      void setHost​(Host host)
      Sets the current host - all future webapps will be added to this host.
      void setHostname​(java.lang.String s)
      The the hostname of the default host, default is 'localhost'.
      void setPort​(int port)
      Set the port for the default connector.
      void setSilent​(boolean silent)
      Controls if the loggers will be silenced or not.
      void start()
      Start the server.
      void stop()
      Stop the server.
      • Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object

        clone, equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait
    • Field Detail

      • server

        protected Server server
      • port

        protected int port
      • hostname

        protected java.lang.String hostname
      • basedir

        protected java.lang.String basedir
    • Constructor Detail

      • Tomcat

        public Tomcat()
    • Method Detail

      • setBaseDir

        public void setBaseDir​(java.lang.String basedir)
        Tomcat requires that the base directory is set because the defaults for a number of other locations, such as the work directory, are derived from the base directory. This should be the first method called.

        If this method is not called then Tomcat will attempt to use these locations in the following order:

        1. if set, the catalina.base system property
        2. if set, the catalina.home system property
        3. The user.dir system property (the directory where Java was run from) where a directory named tomcat.$PORT will be created. $PORT is the value configured via setPort(int) which defaults to 8080 if not set
        The user should ensure that the file permissions for the base directory are appropriate.

        TODO: disable work dir if not needed ( no jsp, etc ).

        Parameters:
        basedir - The Tomcat base folder on which all others will be derived
      • setPort

        public void setPort​(int port)
        Set the port for the default connector. The default connector will only be created if getConnector is called.
        Parameters:
        port - The port number
      • setHostname

        public void setHostname​(java.lang.String s)
        The the hostname of the default host, default is 'localhost'.
        Parameters:
        s - The default host name
      • addWebapp

        public Context addWebapp​(java.lang.String contextPath,
                                 java.lang.String docBase)
        This is equivalent to adding a web application to a Host's appBase (usually Tomcat's webapps directory). By default, the equivalent of the default web.xml will be applied to the web application (see initWebappDefaults(String)). This may be prevented by calling setAddDefaultWebXmlToWebapp(boolean) with false. Any WEB-INF/web.xml and META-INF/context.xml packaged with the application will always be processed and normal web fragment and ServletContainerInitializer processing will always be applied.
        Parameters:
        contextPath - The context mapping to use, "" for root context.
        docBase - Base directory for the context, for static files. Must exist, relative to the server home
        Returns:
        the deployed context
      • addWebapp

        public Context addWebapp​(java.lang.String contextPath,
                                 java.net.URL source)
                          throws java.io.IOException
        Copy the specified WAR file to the Host's appBase and then call addWebapp(String, String) with the newly copied WAR. The WAR will NOT be removed from the Host's appBase when the Tomcat instance stops. Note that ExpandWar provides utility methods that may be used to delete the WAR and/or expanded directory if required.
        Parameters:
        contextPath - The context mapping to use, "" for root context.
        source - The location from which the WAR should be copied
        Returns:
        The deployed Context
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException - If an I/O error occurs while copying the WAR file from the specified URL to the appBase
      • addContext

        public Context addContext​(java.lang.String contextPath,
                                  java.lang.String docBase)
        Add a context - programmatic mode, no default web.xml used. This means that there is no JSP support (no JSP servlet), no default servlet and no web socket support unless explicitly enabled via the programmatic interface. There is also no ServletContainerInitializer processing and no annotation processing. If a ServletContainerInitializer is added programmatically, there will still be no scanning for HandlesTypes matches.

        API calls equivalent with web.xml:

        
          // context-param
          ctx.addParameter("name", "value");
        
        
          // error-page
          ErrorPage ep = new ErrorPage();
          ep.setErrorCode(500);
          ep.setLocation("/error.html");
          ctx.addErrorPage(ep);
        
          ctx.addMimeMapping("ext", "type");
         

        Note: If you reload the Context, all your configuration will be lost. If you need reload support, consider using a LifecycleListener to provide your configuration.

        TODO: add the rest

        Parameters:
        contextPath - The context mapping to use, "" for root context.
        docBase - Base directory for the context, for static files. Must exist, relative to the server home
        Returns:
        the deployed context
      • addServlet

        public Wrapper addServlet​(java.lang.String contextPath,
                                  java.lang.String servletName,
                                  java.lang.String servletClass)
        Equivalent to <servlet><servlet-name><servlet-class>.

        In general it is better/faster to use the method that takes a Servlet as param - this one can be used if the servlet is not commonly used, and want to avoid loading all deps. ( for example: jsp servlet ) You can customize the returned servlet, ex:

            wrapper.addInitParameter("name", "value");
          
        Parameters:
        contextPath - Context to add Servlet to
        servletName - Servlet name (used in mappings)
        servletClass - The class to be used for the Servlet
        Returns:
        The wrapper for the servlet
      • addServlet

        public static Wrapper addServlet​(Context ctx,
                                         java.lang.String servletName,
                                         java.lang.String servletClass)
        Parameters:
        ctx - Context to add Servlet to
        servletName - Servlet name (used in mappings)
        servletClass - The class to be used for the Servlet
        Returns:
        The wrapper for the servlet
      • addServlet

        public Wrapper addServlet​(java.lang.String contextPath,
                                  java.lang.String servletName,
                                  Servlet servlet)
        Add an existing Servlet to the context with no class.forName or initialisation.
        Parameters:
        contextPath - Context to add Servlet to
        servletName - Servlet name (used in mappings)
        servlet - The Servlet to add
        Returns:
        The wrapper for the servlet
      • addServlet

        public static Wrapper addServlet​(Context ctx,
                                         java.lang.String servletName,
                                         Servlet servlet)
        Parameters:
        ctx - Context to add Servlet to
        servletName - Servlet name (used in mappings)
        servlet - The Servlet to add
        Returns:
        The wrapper for the servlet
      • init

        public void init​(ConfigurationSource source)
        Initialize the server given the specified configuration source. The server will be loaded according to the Tomcat configuration files contained in the source (server.xml, web.xml, context.xml, SSL certificates, etc). If no configuration source is specified, it will use the default locations for these files.
        Parameters:
        source - The configuration source
      • init

        public void init​(ConfigurationSource source,
                         java.lang.String[] catalinaArguments)
        Initialize the server given the specified configuration source. The server will be loaded according to the Tomcat configuration files contained in the source (server.xml, web.xml, context.xml, SSL certificates, etc). If no configuration source is specified, it will use the default locations for these files.
        Parameters:
        source - The configuration source
        catalinaArguments - The arguments that should be passed to Catalina
      • destroy

        public void destroy()
                     throws LifecycleException
        Destroy the server. This object cannot be used once this method has been called.
        Throws:
        LifecycleException - Destroy error
      • addUser

        public void addUser​(java.lang.String user,
                            java.lang.String pass)
        Add a user for the in-memory realm. All created apps use this by default, can be replaced using setRealm().
        Parameters:
        user - The user name
        pass - The password
      • addRole

        public void addRole​(java.lang.String user,
                            java.lang.String role)
        Add a role to a user.
        Parameters:
        user - The user name
        role - The role name
        See Also:
        addUser(String, String)
      • getConnector

        public Connector getConnector()
        Get the default HTTP connector that is used by the embedded Tomcat. It is first configured connector in the service. If there's no connector defined, it will create and add a default connector using the port and address specified in this Tomcat instance, and return it for further customization.
        Returns:
        The connector object
      • setConnector

        public void setConnector​(Connector connector)
        Set the specified connector in the service, if it is not already present.
        Parameters:
        connector - The connector instance to add
      • getService

        public Service getService()
        Get the service object. Can be used to add more connectors and few other global settings.
        Returns:
        The service
      • setHost

        public void setHost​(Host host)
        Sets the current host - all future webapps will be added to this host. When tomcat starts, the host will be the default host.
        Parameters:
        host - The current host
      • getHost

        public Host getHost()
      • getEngine

        public Engine getEngine()
        Access to the engine, for further customization.
        Returns:
        The engine
      • getServer

        public Server getServer()
        Get the server object. You can add listeners and few more customizations. JNDI is disabled by default.
        Returns:
        The Server
      • addContext

        public Context addContext​(Host host,
                                  java.lang.String contextPath,
                                  java.lang.String dir)
        Parameters:
        host - The host in which the context will be deployed
        contextPath - The context mapping to use, "" for root context.
        dir - Base directory for the context, for static files. Must exist, relative to the server home
        Returns:
        the deployed context
        See Also:
        addContext(String, String)
      • addContext

        public Context addContext​(Host host,
                                  java.lang.String contextPath,
                                  java.lang.String contextName,
                                  java.lang.String dir)
        Parameters:
        host - The host in which the context will be deployed
        contextPath - The context mapping to use, "" for root context.
        contextName - The context name
        dir - Base directory for the context, for static files. Must exist, relative to the server home
        Returns:
        the deployed context
        See Also:
        addContext(String, String)
      • addWebapp

        public Context addWebapp​(Host host,
                                 java.lang.String contextPath,
                                 java.lang.String docBase)
        This is equivalent to adding a web application to a Host's appBase (usually Tomcat's webapps directory). By default, the equivalent of the default web.xml will be applied to the web application (see initWebappDefaults(String)). This may be prevented by calling setAddDefaultWebXmlToWebapp(boolean) with false. Any WEB-INF/web.xml and META-INF/context.xml packaged with the application will always be processed and normal web fragment and ServletContainerInitializer processing will always be applied.
        Parameters:
        host - The host in which the context will be deployed
        contextPath - The context mapping to use, "" for root context.
        docBase - Base directory for the context, for static files. Must exist, relative to the server home
        Returns:
        the deployed context
      • addWebapp

        public Context addWebapp​(Host host,
                                 java.lang.String contextPath,
                                 java.lang.String docBase,
                                 LifecycleListener config)
        This is equivalent to adding a web application to a Host's appBase (usually Tomcat's webapps directory). By default, the equivalent of the default web.xml will be applied to the web application (see initWebappDefaults(String)). This may be prevented by calling setAddDefaultWebXmlToWebapp(boolean) with false. Any WEB-INF/web.xml and META-INF/context.xml packaged with the application will always be processed and normal web fragment and ServletContainerInitializer processing will always be applied.
        Parameters:
        host - The host in which the context will be deployed
        contextPath - The context mapping to use, "" for root context.
        docBase - Base directory for the context, for static files. Must exist, relative to the server home
        config - Custom context configuration helper. Any configuration will be in addition to equivalent of the default web.xml configuration described above.
        Returns:
        the deployed context
      • createDefaultRealm

        protected Realm createDefaultRealm()
        Create an in-memory realm. You can replace it for contexts with a real one. The Realm created here will be added to the Engine by default and may be replaced at the Engine level or over-ridden (as per normal Tomcat behaviour) at the Host or Context level.
        Returns:
        a realm instance
      • initBaseDir

        protected void initBaseDir()
      • setSilent

        public void setSilent​(boolean silent)
        Controls if the loggers will be silenced or not.
        Parameters:
        silent - true sets the log level to WARN for the loggers that log information on Tomcat start up. This prevents the usual startup information being logged. false sets the log level to the default level of INFO.
      • setAddDefaultWebXmlToWebapp

        public void setAddDefaultWebXmlToWebapp​(boolean addDefaultWebXmlToWebapp)
        By default, when calling addWebapp() to create a Context, the settings from from the default web.xml are added to the context. Calling this method with a false value prior to calling addWebapp() allows to opt out of the default settings. In that event you will need to add the configurations yourself, either programmatically or by using web.xml deployment descriptors.
        Parameters:
        addDefaultWebXmlToWebapp - false will prevent the class from automatically adding the default settings when calling addWebapp(). true will add the default settings and is the default behavior.
        See Also:
        addWebapp(Host, String, String, LifecycleListener)
      • enableNaming

        public void enableNaming()
        Enables JNDI naming which is disabled by default. Server must implement Lifecycle in order for the NamingContextListener to be used.
      • initWebappDefaults

        public void initWebappDefaults​(java.lang.String contextPath)
        Provide default configuration for a context. This is broadly the programmatic equivalent of the default web.xml and provides the following features:
        • Default servlet mapped to "/"
        • JSP servlet mapped to "*.jsp" and ""*.jspx"
        • Session timeout of 30 minutes
        • MIME mappings (subset of those in conf/web.xml)
        • Welcome files
        TODO: Align the MIME mappings with conf/web.xml - possibly via a common file.
        Parameters:
        contextPath - The path of the context to set the defaults for
      • initWebappDefaults

        public static void initWebappDefaults​(Context ctx)
        Static version of initWebappDefaults(String).
        Parameters:
        ctx - The context to set the defaults for
      • addDefaultMimeTypeMappings

        public static void addDefaultMimeTypeMappings​(Context context)
        Add the default MIME type mappings to the provide Context.
        Parameters:
        context - The web application to which the default MIME type mappings should be added.
      • getWebappConfigFile

        protected java.net.URL getWebappConfigFile​(java.lang.String path,
                                                   java.lang.String contextName)
      • main

        public static void main​(java.lang.String[] args)
                         throws java.lang.Exception
        Main executable method for use with a Maven packager.
        Parameters:
        args - the command line arguments
        Throws:
        java.lang.Exception - if an error occurs